THE PRINTER AND PUBLISIIER
SOME STATISTIOS ON THE PULP TRADE.
BY T.. EEIT--,
HE wood pulp industry did not
figure in the census of 1871, show-
ing that it was theii an unknown
feature of Canada's manufacturing.
In I88i the invested capital
amounted to $92,000, the wages to
$15,720 and the product to $63,-
300 Witli the cetsus of I89
came an enormnous increase. Tlhe
invested capital was $2,6oo00,907, the wages were $292,099, and
the value of the product was $I,057,8o1. The product in 189?
was 26I,155 cords. In the decade from i88i to I891, the
capital invested has increased fifty-fold.
The exports of wood pulp have also shown a rapid and
steady increase. The article did not appear in the Customs
returns of 1889, but the subsequent years are as follows:
I'Ui P EXPORTS.
Fiscal year of i89o ..............$ 80,005
.." " 89i I......... ..... . 188,198
1..892 ............... 219,548
." " 1893 ......... 386,092
But still greater are the exports of wood for making pulp, as
the following table will show :
EXPORTS OF WOOD FOR PUI.1'.
Ex~rts to U.S. To. G. Britain.
Fiscal year of i893 .......... $454,2553 $1,640
1892 ........ .. -355,303 *
1891 8 1 ......... . 28o,69 .....
" i1890 ..... .. 68 I8, 8o 460
'Ihis should, of course, be manufactured in Canada, but the
Government has not seen fit to move in the matter. On tle
22nd of September, 1892, an order of the Quebec Executive
Coutncil forbade any holders of a license to cut timber, to cut
any cedar if it were not made into shingles in the Province of
Quebec. Ths is strely precedent enough. If the various
Provitncial governlments would follow the same rule, there
would be no trouble. But if the general authorities that is the
Federal Government, would move in the matter, it would be
mucil better than trusting to seven smaller authorities.
The United States Government has changed the duty on
pullp from $2.50 o01 wood pulp, and $6 or $7 on chemical pulp,
to a straight ad valoremn duty of Io per ceht. Estimating the
value of wood pulp per ton at $14, the duty would thus be $1.40
per ton. At $45 per ton the duty on chemical pulp would be
$450 per.ton. 'hus it may be easily seen that the United States
recognizes the value of this young trade. It knows that wood
pulp mailufacturing is yet in its infancy, that its growth will be
rapid, and the country that controls it will be greatly enriched.
It know? that by retaining a heavy duty it can prevent the
growth of mills among the Canadian spruce forests, and force
the manufacturers of it in the United States to give employment
to thousands of United States laborers. Will the Calnadian
Government stand idly by and see Canada robbed of one of its
most promising industries ?
Of course, the free trader would say: "If the industry is a
suitable one for the country, it will grow up in spite of adverse
tariffs." T'he man that says this tells sonething that he knows
is untrue, or, if he thinks it true, something which is the result
of a defe<tive reasoning power. Tariffs are a nuisantce always,
and a necessity sometimes. But wherevet they exist they affect
trade and trade channels. 'Iarifflegislation is somethintg whichi
must be studied apart from pure political economy atnd tts abso-
The forest area of Canada is very large, ard its wood is very
valuable. The last Statistical Year Book (1893) estimates Can-
ada's area of forest and woodland at 3,315,647 s(quare miles, or
ntearly two billion acres. This is probably an overestimate,
but Canada has certainly a billion acres of forest. Now for
some cotiiparisons of areas:
'lhe manufacturing which Canada should encourage is that
in which nature has best fitted her to excel. But, unfortunately,
her legislators seem bound she shall excel in those for which
nature has made no arrangements whatever. With a forest area
like Canada possesses, the country should be full of turning
wheels, buzzing saws alnd well-paid laborers in the lumber in-
dustry. Instead of that these forests are being depleted to keep
busy the wheels and saws of other countries.
Last year Norway aid Sweden sold in Great Britain 173,938
tons of wood lpulp, the value of wlhich was over $4,000,000.
Canada shiplped 7,870 tons to Great Britain last year. It might
be trebled in i894, if the G'overnment would meet tax vith tax,
and place Canadian pulp manufacturers in as favorable a pos-
ition as their competitors in the Republic to the South.
The Bulletin du Musee Commercial says tie year 1893 was
a very favorable one in Norway for marnufacturers of wood pulp,
the prices on the average having been four kroner (4s. 5J/d.)
higher for wet pulp, arnd eight kroner (8s. ionad.) higher for
dry than they were in the preceding year. Purchasers hastened
to place their orders, and at the commencement of the year the
quantities sold amounted to 130,000 tons. ''he denand having
again increased, the wood pulp syndicate realized that the reduc-
tion of the production to the extent of 331 per cent., which
was primarily fixed upon, was too great, and at a meeting, wlich
was held in May, the mnaximum reduction was fixed at 23/3 per
cent., but in spite of this prices continued to rise. Towards
the end of the year small luantities which were available were
sold at 55 kroner (j3 is. i d/d.), and ioo kroner (_5 i iS. i 3d.)
per ton respectively for pulp wet and dry.
For the current year the greater part of the production is
already sold at remunerative prices. ''he improvement which
has manifested itself in the Norwegian wood pulpl industry has