derable reduction of the canal tariff took place,and raised the tonnage
in that year to 153,000.-In 1858, however, it had againffallen to
88,000-since which time the improvements in the economy of railway
transport has more than kept pace with those in water navigation.
The Paris and Orleans Railway has the navigation by the Seine
and the Loing and Orleans canal to contend with-but forced a
reduction of 40 per 100 from the tariff, notwithstanding which the
railway almost monopolizes the trade, the tonnage in 1858 by rail
being 934,000, by water 50,000 tons.
From canals we will pass to navigable rivers without locks,
transhipment, breaking bulk, or other impediments. First, of the
Seine, from Paris to Rouen and Havre, the government reporter
says - " Even here, the tonnage for railway during the last few
years has increased more rapidly than that by the river."
" From Orleans to Tours the tonnage per rail is 518,000-against
123,000 per water. From Tours to Nantes the quantity is about the
same per rail and water."
From Rive-de-Gier ? Givors, where also a canal and railway
are almost side by side; the Directors of the former after many
years hard struggle finishing by declaring their inability to com-
pete with the railway, and many of the Directors being the same on
both boards, some compromise was effected.
I conclude therefore from the foregoing that those persons who
maintain " that railways will in a great measure supersede canals"
are right, and that they are especially applicable to channels of
great trade, for even the trade of the greatest lines in France is
very far from representing the traffic on the North Western, Great
Western, and many other lines in England compared per mile or per
killometre. And it must be borne in mind that all this immense
increase of internal commerce in all the nations of Europe varying
from 3 to 20 fold is altogether due to the development of the resour-
ces and industries of the countries by means of railways.
I will now consider the question of the cost of transport per rail;